A while back, I had an interesting problem to solve. We have a set of servers on their own TCP/IP network, with addresses in the 10.0.0.0/8 private IPv4 space; it’s colloquially referred to as “the 10 network”. It’s cut off from the main corporate network; you generally need to use a VPN client to access it. It’s possible to get SSH connections enabled by special request, but only from the corporate network to the private network, only to unprivileged IDs, only between static IP addresses, and definitely not for any non-SSH protocol.
We needed to be able to send e-mail from the private network, via the corporate e-mail servers. I could set up an SMTP server on the 10 network easily enough, but there was no way it could initiate a connection to any other SMTP server. We couldn’t even initiate an SMTP connection inbound to it.
Colleagues suggested schemes involving POP3 or IMAP to pull down mail and re-send it. There was discussion whether we would be allowed to use a scripted SSH connection from a system running the VPN software, to trigger a temporary port tunnel and then prod the MTA to attempt delivery. However, I had a better idea, because I remembered how e-mail had been delivered in the 1970s through to the early 1990s, when all we had was dial-up connections.
The software in question is called UUCP, the Unix to Unix Copy Protocol. The great thing about UUCP is that all it needs is a way to send and receive bytes via a terminal-type connection. In fact, it doesn’t even need that; back when UUCP was in common use, there were quite a few networks or modems that only supported 7-bit data, so UUCP can escape data to make it work over 7-bit links too. UUCP also doesn’t need the connection to be reliable, or even there all the time—it can be triggered to perform data transfers in batch mode, then shut down.
I vaguely remembered that the free software Taylor UUCP had been given some sort of SSH support. Investigation revealed that protocol t was aimed at TCP/IP connections, where you can assume that the bytes you send will be received accurately at the other end. (Unless, of course, the entire connection fails for some reason, in which case UUCP will detect the problem and retry later.)
Taylor UUCP was still available prepackaged for RHEL, and Postfix still had all the hooks for UUCP support available. I set up the two servers, one on the corporate network and one on the 10 network. The corporate machine had been set up to allow SSH (and only SSH) connections to the 10 network. I set things up so that UUCP ran chrooted under a restricted ID, and I was also able to set the 10 network server’s UUCP user to have
uucico as login shell—so even if the ID is compromised, it can’t be used to attack either server.
So now Postfix accepts mail from machines on the isolated network, and passes it to UUCP. UUCP turns the mail into UUCP jobs, and queues them. A few times an hour, a cron job on the the internal network machine starts up
uucico, which calls SSH to open a connection to the
uucico on the isolated server. They then exchange all the pending UUCP jobs—bidirectionally—and disconnect. Finally, UUCP on both servers processes the batches it just received, and passes the e-mail on to Postfix. And all without even any port forwarding.
It’s worth mentioning that you could go a step further, and not even allow the SSH connection, if you ran a serial cable between the two servers. IBM Notes still supports serial connections too, allowing secure e-mail between machines that can’t route TCP/IP packets.
So if you ever find yourself in a similar bind because of firewall issues or corporate security policies, remember that we used to transfer files and send e-mail before there were even TCP/IP networks to firewall. There are tutorials for how to set up UUCP over SSH, and unlike any port forwarding kludge you’re likely to come up with, UUCP is time-tested software. It may be a little arcane, but it works.